Second year 2018-2019

Study programme

Consult all the modules of the Master Materials-Minerals / IMACS in PDF…

1- Microstructure and imaging of materials

ECTS credits: 6 (25h including 14h lecture, 2h tutorials, 9 practical) – Teaching language: English

The analysis of the rock microstructure (organization of minerals and pores) is pivotal for understanding their geological history and physical properties (fluid transfer and mechanical behavior). To solve this, imaging techniques are subject to intense developments and widely applied both for academic researches and industrials applications. The obtained data feed realistic modelling approaches of macroscopic physical properties of rocks.
Objectives
The aim is to understand the physics, the advantages and limitations of the different methods available for characterizing the microstructure in order to be able to combine them in a multiscale approach and feed realistic modelling of rock properties.

Head of the training unit: Prêt Dimitri, dimitri.pret@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Prêt Dimitri, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Isabelle Gener Batonneau, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Fabien Thomas, CNRS, LIEC Nancy

2- Industrial clays – Geomaterials

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 23.5h lecture, 22h tutorials, 4.5 practical) – Seminars – Teaching language: English

Industrial minerals and geomaterials (kaolin, quartz, talc, feldspar, clay, lime…) are natural raw materials essential for the manufacture of products of everyday life (buildings, vehicles, computers, medicines, paper, paint, plastic, glass, cosmetics, etc.). They therefore represent major economic issues, and a need to know the structure and physico-chemical properties of these materials, thus conditioning their use and their economic interest.
Objectives
The objective of the course unit is to provide the students with fundamental on industrial clays and on uses and reactivity of clay based material (including reuses and recycling).

Head of the training unit: Emmanuel Joussein, emmanuel.joussein@unilim.fr
Main contributors: Emmanuel Joussein, University of Limoges (PEREINE- GRESE) ; George Christidis, Technical University of Crete, School of Mineral Resources Engineering ; Dimitri Deneele, CNRS, IMN Nantes ; Sébastien Jarny, Poitiers University (PPRIME Institute) ; Gisèle Lecomte, Limoges University (SPCTS)

3- Clays in cultural heritage

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 10h lecture, 10h tutorials, 5h practical) – Teaching language: English

The course unit “clays in cultural heritage” proposes to present an overview of conservation issues on built heritage as well as cultural heritage in museum dealing with clay mineral. Clay minerals are present in sedimentary or metamorphic stones but also in an extremely wide and varied raw earth heritage. Color is also one of the most important properties of objects, in archaeology and art history. Among the traditional inorganic pigments, iron oxides and earth are considered for their archaeological evidence and their uses (medicinal, religious, decorative purposes…).
Objectives
How is identified this heritage, and what are its conditions of conservation? To answer these questions, we propose to contextualize clay minerals within the porous material, and show how clay minerals can be a source of strength and a weakness for objects and buildings.

Head of the training unit: Anne Bouquillon, anne.bouquillon@culture.gouv.fr
Main contributors: Anne Bouquillon, C2RMF, Le Louvre Paris ; Anne Solenn Leho, C2RMF, Le Louvre Paris ; Ann Bourgès, Laboratoire de recherche des monuments historiques, Champs-sur-Marne ; Anne Liegey

4- Nanomaterials and health:antimicrobial properties of clays

ECTS credits: 3 (12h lecture, 13h additional seminar) – Teaching language: English

The capacity to properly address the worldwide incidence of infectious diseases lies in the ability to detect, prevent and effectively treat these infections. Therefore, identifying and analyzing inhibitory agents are worthwhile endeavors in an era when few new classes of effective antimicrobials have been developed. The use of geological nanomaterials to heal skin or other infections has been evident since the earliest recorded history, and specific clay minerals may prove valuable in the treatment of bacterial diseases, including infections for which there are no effective antibiotics.
Overuse of antibiotics in healthcare is a major concern because of the consequential proliferation of antimicrobial resistance. Recent research studies highlight the effective inactivation of antibiotic resistant microorganisms using appropriate clays, as an alternative approach towards public health protection and elimination of infectious diseases.
Objectives
The aim is to understand the physics, the advantages and limitations of the The objectives of the course unit is to introduce environmental microbiology and the behavior/response of microorganisms to biocidal factors. This introduction includes i) the composition of microbial cell and the main groups of microorganisms involved with public health issues, and which may be found in the environment; ii) antimicrobial properties of clays in relation to the different mechanisms of resistance which may be induced in microbial cells ; iii) evolution of microorganisms in terms of the development of resistance under environmental stressed conditions and its overall impact for public health.

Head of the training unit: Danae Venieri, danae.venieri@enveng.tuc.gr
Main contributors: Danae Venieri, Technical University of Crete (Environmental Microbiology Lab.) ; Iosifina Gounaki, Technical University of Crete (Environmental Microbiology Lab./Technical lab. staff)

5- Functionalized layered materials and minerals

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 21.5h lecture, 20.5h tutorials, 8h practical) – Teaching language: English

In order to meet environmental and societal challenges, the use of abundant and inexpensive natural or synthetic minerals and materials is particularly important. The modification/functionalization of the clays and Layered Double Hydroxides and the understanding of the structure-property relations allow to increase their fields of application, which can thus be aimed at catalysis, health, environmental remediation, energy storage or conversion and the development of mineral fillers as polymer additives (nanocomposites).
Objectives
The objective of this course unit is to provide the student with the necessary basis of modified clays, layered double hydroxides and nanocomposites and skills in the synthesis and modification of these materials as well as in characterization (structural/property relationships, advanced characterization methods).

Head of the training unit: Brian Grégoire, brian.gregoire@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Brian Grégoire, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Claude Forano, Blaise Pascal University (Institute of Chemistry of Clermont Ferrand) ; Jocelyne Brendlé, Haute Alsace University (IS2M Institute) ; Christine Taviot Gueho, Blaise Pascal University (Institute of Chemistry of Clermont Ferrand) ; Vanessa Prevot, CNRS, Institute of Chemistry of Clermont Ferrand ; Maguy Jaber, UPMC University Paris (LAMS lab.) ; Serge Bourbigot, Lille 1 University (UMET lab.)

6- Molecular Modeling

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 12.5h lectures, 3h tutorials, 9.5 practical) – Teaching language: English

Modelling (numerical simulation) is an approach used increasingly in all scientific branches, including material science, chemistry, biology and physics. Its ascent, since the 1980s, goes hand in hand with the ever-increasing computational power, as well as improvements in the simulation algorithms used. Within a given model of a system, modelling allows measuring physical quantities that are inaccessible experimentally, either because of low signal intensities or due to extreme conditions, such as high temperatures and pressures. Modelling can now be considered as part of the standard set of tools to study mineral materials.
Objectives
The objectives of this course unit is to introduce the principal methods used to simulate structure and dynamics in minerals (Monte Carlo, Molecular Dynamics). This introduction is supported by numerous examples on clay materials (about half of the module is practical work) where the student encounters basics of programming, the general structure of a simulation code, and is shown how to exploit simulation results to arrive at meaningful physical quantities.

Head of the training unit: Natalie Malikova, natalie.malikova@upmc.fr
Main contributors: Benjamin Rotenberg, CNRS, PHENIX lab. Paris ; Virginie Marry, UPMC University Paris (PHENIX lab.) ; Natalie Malikova, CNRS, PHENIX lab. Paris ; Roland Pellenq, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

7- Organization of clay suspensions

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 9h lectures, 7h tutorials, 9h practical) – Teaching language: English

This unit will present the different possible structures of colloidal systems (in water saturated conditions) and will try to make the link with rheological properties. Concepts concerning electrostatic interactions (type, condition and range), auto-organization and phase transitions will be introduced in general and illustrated in the cases of clayey dispersions. The structural and mechanical behavior will be analyzed by using tools as small-angle X-ray scattering and rheology in saturated conditions. The analysis of data will familiarize students with experimental approaches, especially on the type of information which can be obtained.
Objectives
The main objective of this unit will be to give basics of physico-chemistry and tools in order to determine/predict the structure of colloidal dispersions in relation with the physico-chemical parameters of the media (salinity, solid/solution ratio…) and intrinsic properties of the fine particles chosen (size, morphology, surface charge…). The different concepts will be illustrated by giving examples issued from everyday life and scientific literature.

Head of the training unit: Erwan Paineau, erwan-nicolas.paineau@u-psud.fr
Main contributors: Erwan Paineau, Paris Sud University (LPS Lab.) ; Emmanuel Tertre, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

8- English

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 25h tutorials) – Teaching language: English

English for specialists in Mineral Material science.
Objectives
Development of language skills relevant to professional life, development of comprehension and expression skills with emphasis on specialised technical vocabulary relevant to discipline…

Head of the training unit and contributor: Andrew King, andrew.king@univ-poitiers.fr

8- Environmental Civil Engineering: geotechnical hazards and sustainable applications of clay geomaterials

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 9h lectures, 5h tutorials, 2h practical, 9h methodological workshop)- Teaching language: English

This module is an introduction to civil engineering and geotechnical activities related to the presence of clayey geomaterials (soils, rocks, backfill materials). It is devoted to the description of the macroscopic (mechanical and rheological) and microscopic behavior of clays in soils or rocks.
Objectives
This module aims to make students aware of the potential of clays and the problems they generate. Indeed, although clays are remarkable materials because of their properties (e.g. rheological properties that make them good drilling muds, low permeability that allows them to ensure the tightness of structures), they are nevertheless at the origin of many problems in civil engineering. Their detection in a ground intended to receive a pavement or a building requires the implementation of specific measures (e.g. adapting the dimensioning of the structure, reinforcing the foundations or the structure, treating the ground). In contrast, clay swelling properties (responsible for disorders underneath buildings in times of drought) are used to ensure the sealing of the structure to waste storage.

Head of the training unit: Myriam Duc, myriam.duc@ifsttar.fr and Philippe Cosenza, philippe.cosenza@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Myriam Duc, IFSTTAR / GERS/ SRO, French Institute for Transport, Development and Networks Science and Technology ; Philippe Cosenza, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Sébastien Jarny, Poitiers University (PPRIME Institute) ; Richard Giot, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Andry Razakamanantsoa, IFSTTAR/GERS/GMG (French Institute for Transport, Development and Networks Science and Technology.

9- Master thesis internship

ECTS credits: 27

Minimum 5 months internship (up to 6 months) in university or industrial laboratories. This internship is a key element of the training because it allows a complete immersion in a professional environment (academic laboratory and/or company). Student will have to apply all the knowledge/skills acquired during the first 3 semesters to deal with a real scientific or technical problem.
Objectives
The objective of this module is to develop:

  • Organizational skills (working independently, conducting information research, implementing and carrying out a project)
  • Relational skills (integration into a professional environment)
  • General scientific skills (implementation a scientific approach)
  • Specific disciplinary skills

The student will have to be able to use information and communication technologies, to prepare adapted communication materials, to speak in public, to present the major scientific points of his or her work, to lead a scientific debate on the topic addressed during the internship and to propose extensions to his/her work.