First year 2018-2019

Study programme

Consult all the modules of the Master Materials-Minerals / IMACS in PDF…

1- Physics and Transfers

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 22h lectures, 7h tutorials, 21h practical) – Teaching language: English

Rocks or geomaterials are composed of minerals whose organization is intimately linked to a network of pores that stores fluids such as water, gases and organic pollutants. Understanding the organization of solids and pores is therefore essential in order to control and predict the distribution, macroscopic transfer and quantities of stored fluids. This organization also controls the mechanical and geotechnical properties of soils. The knowledge of associated physical phenomena as well as the measurement in the laboratory of mechanical and transfer properties will therefore be an asset in geosciences to address applied and environmental issues.
Objectives:
The objective of this module will be to understand and how to manipulate the physical laws involved in rocks, soils and geomaterials in order to measure and predict the transfer of fluids/pollutants and their mechanical characteristics

Head of the training unit: Dimitri Prêt, dimitri.pret@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Dimitri Prêt, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) and Richard Giot, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

2- Water/ rock interactions

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 20h lectures, 15h tutorials, 15h practical) – Teaching language: English

This unit is devoted to give basic tools of thermodynamic in order to predict chemical reactions between a given fluid and minerals and/or natural rocks. We focus on dissolution/precipitation reactions due to their strong influence on the transfer properties of rocks and aquifers. Redox interactions are also discussed in this unit.
Objectives:
In the context of dissolution/precipitation interactions, the first objective will be to predict the saturation state of a natural water with respect to a mineral, especially by considering the salinity of the geological fluid. Then, these notions will be applied to rocks in order to predict the stability of the minerals presented inside with respect to a given fluid. One of the main objectives is the construction of activity diagrams generally used to predict fluid/rocks interactions at equilibrium (mineral solubility versus pH, T or salinity; Korjinski diagram; Eh/pH graphics).

Head of the training unit: Emmanuel Tertre, emmanuel.tertre@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Emmanuel Tertre, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) and Aude Naveau, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

3- Soil science – Soil formation processes

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 12.5h lectures, 12.5h tutorials) – Teaching language: English

This course unit presents the main rock weathering processes and soil formation and evolution. It also presents the major soil types of the world in relation with weathering processes and macroclimate. It will be focused on:

  • Supergene or meteoric rock weathering mechanisms: definition of the key factors controlling biogeochemical weathering processes.
  • Relationships between rock weathering, clay formation and porosity development.
  • Presentation of pedogenesis mechanisms, neoformed minerals, associated soil types and spatial distribution at the earth surface.
  • Presentation of soil variability at different scales.
  • Introduction to soil sustainability.

Objectives:
The objectives of this course unit are to describe the main rock weathering and soil formation mechanisms and the factors that control these processes. Rock weathering mechanisms depend on geology, climate and topography. Knowledge of soil formation processes is important as it plays a key role on physical (water transfer) and chemical (cation exchange capacity, interactions with pollutants) properties that must be taken into account for environmental monitoring.

Head of the training unit: Laurent Caner, laurent.caner@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Laurent Caner, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) and Tales Tiecher, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

4- Programming and data analyses

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 6h lectures, 19h practical) – In order to develop the required competences, students must complete a programming project. From a given dataset, students will have to 1/ organize the data, 2/ manipulate it using filtering, combining and other techniques, and 3/ represent data graphically, those allowing data analysis – Teaching language: English

Treat and analyze data coming from the different other master course units is possible only by the efficient assimilation and using of programming tools. These tools should answer to the following requirements: accessibility (free ware should be prioritized), simplicity of handling, and applicability to complex data. The study of many complementary tools is necessary to manipulate different digitized objects: spectra, images, files coming from simulations. More broadly, knowledge of programming tools is a common pre requirement for facilitating student integration in the professional world.
Objectives:
The objective of this course unit is to provide the student with programming skills in different languages/codes and a better vision of grammatical variations in addition to universal programming methods.

Head of the training unit: Paul Sardini, paul.sardini@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Paul Sardini, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) and Baptiste Dazas, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

5- Minerals/Materials characterization techniques – Part 1

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 24h lectures, 19h tutorials, 7h practical) – Teaching language: English

Based on examples and applications to clays and other minerals, we will see how to use a wide range of techniques dedicated to solid characterization (spectroscopy, diffraction) to better analyze, understand and model mineral structures. The module will mainly rely on the study of the structures and crystal chemistry of lamellar materials and more specifically clays. The great chemical and structural diversity of these minerals makes them complex subjects of study, thus allowing us to understand the analysis capabilities and limitations of the different instruments with a complex natural material.
Objectives:
This module, in two parts, is intended for all students who, in their professional life, will be confronted with scientific instrumentation and/or the characterization of natural/synthetic material using physical methods. The first part of this module will focus on the theoretical bases as well as crystalchemical solid analysis techniques.

Head of the training unit: Baptiste Dazas, baptiste.dazas@univ-poitiers.fr and Bruno Lanson, bruno.lanson@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr
Main contributors: Alexandre Simionovici, Grenoble Alpes University (ISTerre Institute), Baptiste Dazas, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute), Karine Vigier, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute), Anne Claire Gaillot, Nantes University (IMN institute).

6-  Electronic microscopy

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 14h lectures, 4h tutorials, 7h practical) – Teaching language: English

Electron microscopy is an essential tool for the microstructural study of geomaterials up to atomic scale. This course will provide the basis for the theoretical and practical aspects of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Emphasis will be placed on both imaging and electron diffraction techniques and spatially-resolved chemical analysis.
Objectives:
The objective of this course is to understand the physics, advantages and limitations of electron microscopy in order to master the characterization of geomaterials at different scales.

Head of the training unit: Marie Laure David, marie.laure.david@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Marie Laure David, Poitiers University (PPRIME Institute) and Dimitri Prêt, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

7- English

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 25h tutorials) – Teaching language: English

English for specialists in Mineral Material science.
Objectives:
Development of comprehension and expression skills to enable students to follow lectures and reading in English in their specialty.

Head of the training unit and contributor: Andrew King, andrew.king@univ-poitiers.fr

8- Hydrogeochemical modeling

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 13h tutorials, 12h practical) – Teaching language: English

This unit is devoted to practice of hydrogeochemical software (such as JCHESS or Phreeqc), in order to respond to problems relative to the speciation of chemical elements in waters and in minerals/rocks. Some codes coupling chemical reactions to transport processes will be also used in order to simulate environmental issues. This unit will illustrate the bases introduced in the lectures devoted to « fluid/rocks interactions ».
Objectives:
The main objective of this course unit, which will illustrate the bases of fluid/rock interactions, is to use one (or more) hydrogeochemical softwares (ex: JCHESS, Phreeqc…) in order to simulate chemical reactions which can occur in natural media and which can be sometimes very complex. Using computer code will allow students to resolve numerically complex speciation problematics.

Head of the training unit: Emmanuel Tertre, emmanuel.tertre@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Emmanuel Tertre, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Aude Naveau, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Michael Descostes, AREVA

9- Solid/solution interface

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 10h lectures, 7h tutorials, 8h practical) – Teaching language: English

This unit is devoted to give the basis of chemical and physical properties of fine minerals and organic particles diluted in water. We will focus more on adsorption of solute on mineral colloid especially by taking into account their surface charge, and on their coagulation/flocculation properties.
Objectives:
One of the objectives is to know the main experimental techniques used to obtain the surface site density and associated charge of colloids (fine particles). Another objective is to be able to know how to obtain an adsorption isotherm of a solute on a colloid particle and to interpret it. Finally, an important objective is also be able to predict the colloidal stability (or flocculation) of a system composed of fine particles diluted in water.

Head of the training unit: Emmanuel Tertre, emmanuel.tertre@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Emmanuel Tertre, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) and Fabien Thomas, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, LIEC

10- Minerals/Materials characterization techniques – Part 2

ECTS credits: 6 (25h including 20.5h lectures, 23h tutorials, 6.5h practical) – Teaching language: English

Based on examples and applications to clays and other minerals, we will see how to use a wide range of techniques dedicated to solid characterization (spectroscopy, diffraction) to better analyze, understand and model mineral structures. The module will mainly rely on the study of the structures and crystal chemistry of lamellar materials and more specifically clays. The great chemical and structural diversity of these minerals makes them complex subjects of study, thus allowing us to understand the analysis capabilities and limitations of the different instruments with a complex natural material.
Objectives:
This module, in two parts, is intended for all students who, in their professional life, will be confronted with scientific instrumentation and/or the characterization of natural/synthetic material using physical methods. The second part of this module is intended to allow a thorough interpretation of spectroscopic and diffractometric signals. Detailed and quantitative information on the properties and structures of minerals/materials is thus possible.

Head of the training unit: Baptiste Dazas, baptiste.dazas@univ-poitiers.fr and Bruno Lanson, bruno.lanson@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr
Main contributors: Bruno Lanson, CNRS, ISTerre institute, Grenoble ; Eric Ferrage, CNRS, IC2MP institute, Poitiers ; Claire Marichal Westrich, Haute Alsace University (IS2M Institute)
Thierry Allard, CNRS, IMPMC Paris ; Baptiste Dazas, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Alexandre Simionovici, Grenoble Alpes University (ISTerre Institute)

11-  Soil science – current research and development on soils components

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 10h lectures, 6h tutorials, 9h methodological workshop) – Seminars (3h) Teaching language: English

This course concerns the study of soil mineralogy and the key role played by minerals in the current worldwide challenges in soil science research. The first part of the teaching is focused on the methodology for the identification of soil minerals. The second part addresses the role of soil minerals through three worldwide challenges in soil science: feeding resources, carbon sequestration and the migration of contaminants. Practical skills developed in the research laboratory focus on the main steps leading to the identification of soil minerals: sample preparation, data recording and interpretation of the data.
Objectives:
One of the objectives of this course unit is to introduce the key role of mineralogy in the main current challenges in soil science research (feeding resources, carbon sequestration and the migration of contaminants). The second objective is to train the student to implement and optimize methodologies for the characterization of soil minerals.

Head of the training unit: Fabien Hubert, fabien.hubert@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Fabien Hubert, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Laurent Caner, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Pierre Barré, ENS Paris (Geology lab) ; Samuel Coussy, BRGM Orléans

12- Paleo-conditions marker minerals in sub-surface geological environments

ECTS credits: 6 (50h including 17h lecture, 4h tutorials, 6h practical, 23h methodological workshop) Seminars – Teaching language: English

The sub-surface geological systems of the continents (diagenetic and hydrothermal series) are complex. These systems can be extremely dynamic over time and in space, in response to changes in environmental conditions (temperature, fluid composition, tectonic activity, etc.). In the case of sub-surface rocks, alteration due to circulation of crustal fluids linked to sediment burial, tectono-magmatic/metamorphic activity causes extensive changes in the mineralogical composition and texture of the rocks. These changes are at the origin of the formation of the main deposits that constitute the resources of metallic raw materials, minerals and fossil or renewable energy necessary for the economic development of our societies (hydrocarbons, uranium, geothermal reservoirs…).
Objectives:
In each geological system considered, interventions will focus on the use of the properties of altered/transformed rocks and clay minerals as markers for the evolution of fluid/rock interaction conditions. Clay minerals are particularly reactive and important actors of fluid-rock interactions. They have the ability to archive the history of geological formations in reaction mineral sequences or the intrinsic properties of crystals. They will be therefore used as potential markers of the chemical and physical conditions essential for understanding the functioning of natural systems.

Head of the training unit: Patricia Patrier, patricia.patrier@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Patricia Patrier, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute) ; Martine Buatier, Franche Comté University (Chrono Environnement lab.) ; Jean Pierre Girard, TOTAL Company ; Claire Fialips, TOTAL Company ; Abder EL Albani, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

13- Scientific communication

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 10h tutorials, 15h project) – Teaching language: English

The module prepares the student for scientific communication (written and oral) and in particular for writing and defending a project and/or an internship dissertation. It is based on analyses of scientific documents, presentations of reports, and the production of a poster.
Objectives:
The aim is to provide the student with communication tools and approaches that will be necessary during the training period (during periods of internship in a company/laboratory or for the projects he/she will have to carry out) as well as during his/her professional career.

Head of the training unit: Abder El Albani, abder.albani@univ-poitiers.fr
Main contributors: Abder El Albani, Poitiers University (IC2MP Institute)

14- English

ECTS credits: 3 (25h including 25h tutorials) – Teaching language: English

English for specialists in Mineral Material science.
Objectives:
Continuing development of comprehension and expression skills with additional emphasis on specialised technical vocabulary relevant to discipline.

Head of the training unit and contributor: Andrew King, andrew.king@univ-poitiers.fr

15- Internships

ECTS credits: 3

Minimum 1 month internship (up to 4 months) in university or industrial laboratories. This internship is a key element of the training because it allows a complete immersion in a professional environment (academic laboratory and/or company).
Objectives:
The objective of this module is to develop:

  • Organizational skills (working independently, conducting information research, implementing and carrying out a project)
  • Relational skills (integration into a professional environment)
  • General scientific skills (implementation of a scientific approach)
  • Specific disciplinary skills

The student will have to be able to use information and communication technologies, to prepare adapted communication materials, to speak in public, to present the major scientific points of his or her work.